Vista di Praga dal Ponte San Carlo

Common European Security after the Cold War
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A parterre of international experts and accredited political leaders, will meet in Prague, on 16 – 17 September, to inaugurate the international conference “Common European Security after the Cold War: What are the Solutions to New Challenges?"; great international event divided into three points:
1. The common European Security – with or without Russia?
2. Choices between sovereignty and integration. European security and its pillars in politics, economics, culture.
3. Europe facing Migration, Terrorism, Xenophobia and Nationalism – what are the answers?

The conference of Prague is organized by the Nobel Prize Laureate, Mikhail Gorbachev, with the President of the Czech Republic,  Miloš Zeman, and with the collaborations of “Foundation Italiani” - chairman Angelo R. Schiano -  and Czech foundation “The Iron Curtain Foundation”, chairman Jan Karvan.
With a historical approach, the participants of the conference will talk about: the fall of communism; the extension to the east of NATO; European model liberal-capitalist; Russia's relationship with Europe; European Union crisis.

The dates of Michail Gorbachev
2nd March 1931: He is born in Privol’noe, in the Stavropol´ region;
1952: He joins the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU);
1955: He graduates from the Faculty of Law at the Moscow State University;
1971: He gets elected into the Central Committee of the Communist Party;
1985: He becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union;
11th March 1985: It’s the start of  the “perestroika" reform (economic restructuring) and "glasnost" reform (political transparency);
15th March 1990: The first democratically elected Russian Parliament appoints Gorbachev President of the Soviet Union, in place of outgoing President Gromyco;
15th of October 1990: He receives the Nobel Peace Prize by virtue of his intervention against the nuclear arms race, to improve the fortune of the Cold War
April 2010: The “New Policy Forum” is founded.

The dates of Miloš Zeman
28th September 1944: He is born in Kolìn;
1968: He joins the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, until he is expelled in 1970 due to his disagreement with the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union;
1969: He graduates from the Faculty of Economics at the University of Prague;
June 1990: He is elected member of Parliament of Czechoslovakia with the political movement "Civic Forum”;
1992: He is re-elected member of Parliament as member of the Czech Social Democratic Party (CSSD), after the dissolution of the Civic Forum;
February 1993: He is elected President of the CSSD;
June 1996 – July 1998: He is President of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic
July 1998 – July 2002: He becomes Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, after the electoral triumph of the CSSD;
21st of March 2007: He leaves the Czech Social Democratic Party and founds in October 2009 the Civil Rights Party;
26th of January 2013: He is the first President of the Czech Republic to be elected with direct universal suffrage;

Europe – Russia Post 1989
1949: Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington, aimed at collective security and at the common defence of the twelve signatory States: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, USA, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal; which later were joined by Greece, Turkey (1952), the Federal Republic of Germany (1955) and Spain (1982).
By signing the Covenant – a central element of the emerging Cold War – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established, aimed at developing political and economical cooperation amongst the Member States and promoting multilateral consultation on security matters.
1955 – 1991: Treaty of Warsaw, a military- political alliance of mutual assistance between the Soviet Union and the people's democracies of Eastern Europe, born in opposition to the Atlantic Treaty. The deal foresaw a military integration, political consultations and a commitment to mutual defence among the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Romania and Albania;
January 1990 – December 1991: Dissolution of the Soviet Union;
11th March 1990: Lithuania is the first Soviet Socialist Republic to declare its independence;
1st July 1991: The Official Protocol on the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact is signed in Prague;
8th July 1997: The Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary join NATO. During the Madrid Summit, the President of the United States, Bill Clinton, and the representatives of the Governments of the sixteen State Members unanimously agree to invite the three satellite States of the former Soviet Union to join  NATO. They also declare the willingness of the Organization to consider requests for adhesion from other Eastern European countries.
29th March 2004: Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania join NATO;
February 2005: Pro-European Ukraine Government, led by Julia Tymoščenko;
September 2005: Rapid fall of Tymoščenko’s government, the Europhile government coalition showed severe limitations and an internal division that revealed the split between Russophile Russian-speaking Eastern regions and Western ones, in favour of economic reform and European integration;
December 2013: After a month during which President Yanukovych had refused to sign the association agreement with the European Union, yielding to the pressure from Moscow, violent demonstrations which shook the country took place and were harshly repressed by the police;
22nd February 2014: escalation of the clashes, culminating in the ouster of Ukrainian President elect Viktor Yanukovych;
March 2014: Following these events, Russophile forces have taken control of the Ukrainian military bases in Crimea, and the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea voted for the secession from Ukraine and requested annexation to Russia, a decision which received 97% of votes in favour, confirmed by a popular referendum. Despite the lack of recognition by the International community and the emanation of sanctions by the United States and the European Union, on March 18 President Vladimir Putin signed the Treaty of adhesion of Crimea to the Russian Federation;
February 2015: The Eastern sector of the country became the theatre of bloody clashes between the separatists and the Ukrainian army, and it was only in February 2015 in Minsk (Belarus), thanks to the mediation of Germany and France, that the parties have found an agreement for a ceasefire, which is deemed by the international community to be extremely fragile.

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